Intel Corporation (also known as Intel, stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California (colloquially referred to as "Silicon Valley") that was founded by Gordon Moore (of Moore's law fame) and Robert Noyce. It is the world's largest and highest valued semiconductor chip makers based on revenue,[2] and is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors: the processors found in most personal computers (PCs). Intel supplies processors for computer system manufacturers such as Apple, Lenovo (formerly IBM), HP, and Dell. Intel also manufactures motherboard chipsets, network interface controllers and integrated circuits, flash memory, graphics chips, embedded processors and other devices related to communications and computing.

Intel Corporation was founded on July 18, 1968, by semiconductor pioneers Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore, and widely associated with the executive leadership and vision of Andrew Grove. The company's name was conceived as portmanteau of the words integrated and electronics. The fact that "intel" is the term for intelligence information also made the name appropriate.[3] Intel was an early developer of SRAM and DRAM memory chips, which represented the majority of its business until 1981. Although Intel created the world's first commercial microprocessor chip in 1971, it was not until the success of the personal computer (PC) that this became its primary business. During the 1990s, Intel invested heavily in new microprocessor designs fostering the rapid growth of the computer industry. During this period Intel became the dominant supplier of microprocessors for PCs and was known for aggressive and anti-competitive tactics in defense of its market position, particularly against Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), as well as a struggle with Microsoft for control over the direction of the PC industry.[4][5]

The Open Source Technology Center at Intel hosts PowerTOP and LatencyTOP, and supports other open-source projects such as Wayland, Intel Array Building Blocks, and Threading Building Blocks (TBB), and Xen.[6]

Operating segmentsEdit

  • Client Computing Group – 55% of 2016 revenues – produces hardware components used in desktop and notebook computers.[7]
  • Data Center Group – 29% of 2016 revenues – produces hardware components used in server, network, and storage platforms.[7]
  • Internet of Things Group – 5% of 2016 revenues – offers platforms designed for retail, transportation, industrial, buildings and home use.[7]
  • Non-Volatile Memory Solutions Group – 4% of 2016 revenues – manufactures NAND flash memory products primarily used in solid-state drives.[7]
  • Intel Security Group – 4% of 2016 revenues – produces software, particularly security, and antivirus software.[7]
  • Programmable Solutions Group – 3% of 2016 revenues – manufactures programmable semiconductors (primarily FPGAs).[7]

Top customers[edit]Edit

In 2016, Dell accounted for 15% of Intel's total revenues, Lenovo accounted for 13% of total revenues, and HP Inc. accounted for 10% of total revenues.[7]

Market share[edit]Edit

Market share in early 2011[edit]Edit

According to IDC, while Intel enjoyed the biggest market share in both the overall worldwide PC microprocessor market (79.3%) and the mobile PC microprocessor (84.4%) in the second quarter of 2011, the numbers decreased by 1.5% and 1.9% compared to the first quarter of 2011.[8][9]

Historical market share[edit]Edit

In the 1980s, Intel was among the top ten sellers of semiconductors (10th in 1987) in the world. In 1991, Intel became the biggest chip maker by revenue and has held the position ever since. Other top semiconductor companies include TSMCAdvanced Micro DevicesSamsungTexas InstrumentsToshiba and STMicroelectronics.

Major competitors[edit]Edit

Competitors in PC chip sets include Advanced Micro DevicesVIA TechnologiesSilicon Integrated Systems, and Nvidia. Intel's competitors in networking include NXP SemiconductorsInfineonBroadcom LimitedMarvell Technology Group and Applied Micro Circuits Corporation, and competitors in flash memory include SpansionSamsungQimondaToshibaSTMicroelectronics, and SK Hynix.

The only major competitor in the x86 processor market is Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), with which Intel has had full cross-licensing agreements since 1976: each partner can use the other's patented technological innovations without charge after a certain time.[10]However, the cross-licensing agreement is canceled in the event of an AMD bankruptcy or takeover.[11]

Some smaller competitors such as VIA Technologies produce low-power x86 processors for small factor computers and portable equipment. However, the advent of such mobile computing devices, in particular, smartphones, has in recent years led to a decline in PC sales.[12] Since over 95% of the world's smartphones currently use processors designed by ARM Holdings, ARM has become a major competitor for Intel's processor market. ARM is also planning to make inroads into the PC and server market.[13]

Intel has been involved in several disputes regarding violation of antitrust laws, which are noted below